Pug: breed history and origin
The history of the pug breed goes back centuries.
In the photo: pug dog
Initially, they were bred in China before our era. Presumably, the ancestors of the pugs became small Sichuan dogs, which were also called Buddha's heavenly lions, bred by Tibetan monks. It was believed that they bring happiness to the owner. Their statues were erected on the thresholds of temples to protect religious buildings from the evil spirit.
Confucius first mentioned pug-like dogs (551 BC). And even then, pedigree work was purposefully carried out, for which a special "post" was introduced - chanqian. The figure formed by the frontal folds of the pugs was considered a hieroglyph and called the emperor’s sign. This feature was fixed and reinforced.
The Great Silk Road paved the way for these dogs to many Asian countries, where they gained favor from many rulers.
Pugs came to Europe (or rather, France) with the Turkish fleet in 1553. These dogs, thanks to the Dutch East India Company, soon became popular in the Netherlands, where they were likened to the colors of the ruling Oransky house. When William III of Orange became King of England, he and his wife Maria II brought pugs from the Netherlands in 1689. For about two centuries, the breed was as popular as the poodle today. It was considered a sign of good taste to have this little dog.
But gradually pugs became less and less. They began to be considered the personification of philistinism. So in 1864, for the English Queen Victoria, who wished to have representatives of the breed, they hardly found one dog.
However, 20 years after that (not without the patronage of the royal court of Great Britain), a club of pug lovers was created, and efforts to improve and standardize the breed gave that elegant little dog that we now know.
In the Russian Empire, pugs were first seen at the end of the 19th century, but the hurricane of revolution swept them from the Russian stage for the coming decades. And only in the 80s of the last century in the USSR began to professionally breed this breed. Nurseries, clubs were opened, exhibitions were held.
Now pugs are one of the most common breeds in Europe, the USA and Australia.